To understand endodontic surgery, it helps first to know something about the nonsurgical endodontic procedure, or “root canal.” Root canal treatment is necessary when the soft inner tissue, or “pulp,” of the tooth becomes inflamed or infected. This may happen as a result of deep decay, repeated dental procedures on the tooth, or an injury to the tooth. Root canal (endodontic) treatment removes the damaged pulp. Then the tooth’s canals are cleaned and filled to help preserve the tooth. In a few cases, however, root canal (nonsurgical endodontic) treatment alone cannot save the tooth. In such a case, your dentist or endodontist may recommend surgery.