All dentists received training in endodontic treatment in dental school. However, because endodontic surgery can be more challenging than providing nonsurgical treatment, many dentists refer patients needing surgery to endodontists. Endodontists are dentists with at least two additional years of advanced education and training in root canal techniques and procedures. In addition to treating routine cases, they are experts in performing complicated procedures including surgery. They often treat difficult cases, such as teeth with unusual or complex root structure or small, narrow canals. This special training and experience can be very valuable when endodontic surgery is necessary.